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Anthropogenic (Geoform Origin)

Component: Geoform

Unique Identifier: 217

Geoform Origin Anthropogenic
Geoform Seawall
Tidal/Wave Energy Structure
Trash Aggregation
Wharf
Wind Energy Structure
Wreck
Aquaculture Structure
Artificial Bar
Artificial Dike
Artificial Reef
Artificial Scar
Buoy
Breakwater/Jetty
Breachway
Bulkhead
Cable Area
Cable
Canal
Dam
Dock/Pier
Dredged/Excavated Channel
Dredge Deposit
Dredge Disturbance
Drilling (Oil and Gas) Rig
Fill Area
Fish Pond
Harbor
Lock
Lost/Discarded Fishing Gear
Marina/Boat Ramp
Mooring Field
Mosquito Ditch
Outfall/Intake
Pilings
Pipeline Area
Rip Rap Deposit
Salt Pond Complex
Salt Pond


Description
Definition In many coastal and deep oceans, artificial structures (such as piers, breakwaters, bulkheads, berms, drilling rigs, and artificial reefs) are a significant part of the environment. The continually (or intermittently) submerged portions of features attract vagile fauna and provide attachment surfaces for plants and sessile animals. These features can also provide shelter from predators and prevailing current, and they can support niche communities that increase overall biodiversity. However, these structures can also have negative effects (such as altering natural hydrodynamic patterns, interfering with animal movement, and increasing contaminant loading into nearshore areas), and thus are often of interest to resource managers.

The same relationship between Level 1 and Level 2 geoforms prevails in this origin type as in the geologic and biogenic categories; however, due to the complexity of some of the anthropogenic structures, many more Level 2 units may be present in a single Level 1 geoform. Besides physical structures, features that are the result of human activity (such as scars and trawl marks) are included among the anthropogenic geoforms.