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Estuarine Coastal (Subsystem)

Unique Identifier: 7

System Estuarine
Subsystem Estuarine Coastal
Tidal Zone Estuarine Coastal Subtidal
Estuarine Coastal Intertidal
Estuarine Coastal Supratidal

Description
Definition The Estuarine Coastal Subsystem extends from the supratidal zone at the land margin up to the 4 meter depth contour in waters that have salinity greater than 0.5 (during the period of average annual low flow). The Estuarine Coastal Subsystem would be considered the shallow perimeter in a deeper estuary, although many estuaries may be entirely less than 4 meters deep and be classified as completely in the Coastal Subsystem. The 4 meter contour was selected as a cutoff between "coastal" and "offshore" estuarine waters because it identifies (somewhat arbitrarily) a region that is both shallow and generally in close proximity to the shore, making the substrate-to-water volume ratio here the highest in the entire estuary. A convening of experts delineated this 4 meter contour as described in Reilly, Spagnolo, and Ambrogio (1999) as important in both an ecological and a regulatory sense in estuarine systems and CMECS has adopted it to emphasize the significant human and natural processes that occur there.

The high wetland-water ration and pelagic-benthic connectivity makes the Estuarine Coastal Subsystem an extremely dynamic and active area in terms of hydrodynamics, geology, and biology. It is this area in shallow coastal waters where maximum interaction between estuarine waters, and adjacent wetlands or developed shoreline occurs and often where intense juxtaposition of human activity and the natural system occurs. Watershed, point and non-point inputs to the estuary are often maximal in this shallow zone.

Because the Coastal Subsystem tends to receive an abundance of light, these waters and bottom areas are usually sites of high primary production. In water columns, shallow waters typically support high phytoplankton productivity while shallow water bottoms are covered in highly productive microphytobenthos, macroalgae and/or rooted macrophytes and their attached epiphytic communities. As regions of high primary production, shallow waters attract an abundance of higher trophic level organisms that feed on plants and on their grazer communities. Strong physical subsidies from flowing waters and wind stresses create waves and currents that generally maintain the shallow waters in a well-oxidized state. Surface waters of the Coastal Subsystem tend to be well-mixed and are affected by strong physical processes that impact the bottom: resuspending sediments, reducing light and altering spectral characteristics of the light climate. The estuarine bottom in shallow waters is also subject to frequent wind-induced reworking and transport of sediments and dynamic bedforms.

The Estuarine Coastal Subsystem is divided in three zones based on tidal action: